While the private sector has driven the continuous improvements and breakthroughs in exploration and production technologies for unconventional natural gas, unconventional gas production through these combined techniques became commonplace only in the 1990s after years of federal support and further innovations. The federal government substantively aided private efforts in several ways: basic science and resource mapping; coordinating and complementing industry efforts; applied research and development; and tax credits for unconventional gas.
The diesel engine was invented in the 1890s, but it only began to play a major role in the U.S. economy during and after construction of the Interstate Highway System in the 1950s. Following the 1973 oil embargo, the government placed a new emphasis on technological development to improve fuel efficiency and reduce dependence on foreign oil. Over the following decades, there were three main mechanisms by which the government supported the improvement of diesel engines: performing basic combustion research, creating engine simulation tools, and establishing research partnerships.
Since the 1970s, the government has used four primary mechanisms to drive low‑e window technology development and commercialization: basic research and seed investments; computer tools for simulating window performance; standardized testing procedures and performance ratings; and educational outreach to manufacturers and consumers.
( HTML | PDF ) Unleashing Private Sector Energy R&D: Insights from Interviews with 17 R&D Leaders — 2013
American business relies on innovation as a core driver of success. So, how do our most successful businesses manage innovation, and what is the role of national policy in enhancing private sector R&D? For this study, we interviewed top R&D executives at some of the largest and most innovative companies in America. Their insights shed light on how to integrate research and development into a successful business model. They also reveal how government and business can work together to accelerate innovation and solve America’s energy challenges.